What is One China Policy
The ‘One China Policy’ actually recognizes the diplomatic position of China under which the rule of only one Chinese government is valid. Under this policy, America has given formal recognition to its relations with China, not Taiwan. This policy came into existence in the year 1949 when China’s Civil War ended. The people of the defeated country were called the Kuomintang and went to Taiwan.
Here he formed his government while the winning Communist Party was ruling China. Both sides said that they represent China. Since then, China’s ruling Communist Party has threatened Taiwan that if it formally declared itself an independent country, then China would have to use its forces. China considers Taiwan as its part.Be it India or America, relations with China can never take shape without this policy. Under this policy, apart from Taiwan, China declares Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang as its part. At the same time, it does not tolerate the interference of any country on any issue related to these places. US-China or India-China, under this policy, mentioning on Taiwan and Tibet can become a problem for any country. It is a different matter that Taiwan calls itself an independent country. Even after this, every country having relations with China has to be cut off from Taiwan.
America passed important act
The One China Policy is the cornerstone of China’s relations with many countries. Apart from this, China makes its policies under this policy. Even though the government of Taiwan considers Taiwan as an independent country, it is still officially called the Republic of China. Any country that has relations with China cannot have relations with Taiwan. Because of this, Taiwan is cut off from the international community. The US formally started diplomatic relations with China in 1979 during the time of former President Jimmy Carter. As a result, the US had to break ties with Taiwan and close the embassy in Taiwan’s capital, Taipei. But before that, Carter spoke to the Taiwanese president over the phone.
The US passed the Taiwan Relations Act, which was a guarantee of support for Taiwan. This act also said that America should help Taiwan in any situation so that it can protect itself. For this reason, America still sells its weapons to Taiwan. America today has an American Institute in Taiwan and also has an unofficial US presence. It is from here that America also runs all its diplomatic activities.
Challenges coming from India too
In 2016, when former President Donald Trump won the election, he again put his hand on China’s aching vein along with Taiwan. Trump spoke on the phone with Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen after winning the election. After Carter, Trump was the first US president in so many years to call Taiwan. After what Trump did, the anger of China reached the seventh heaven. Since then, the One China Policy has been repeatedly challenged.
Unlike America, India has also changed its stance regarding this policy in the last two years. While America has started selling arms to Taiwan, India has also started recognizing the exiled leader and religious leader of Tibet, the Dalai Lama. Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi congratulated the Dalai Lama on his birthday and then arranged his visit to Ladakh.
China has certainly benefited from this policy. Taiwan has not got the status of an independent country even today and even the United Nations (UN) has refused to consider it a country. Taiwan also has to go through many difficulties to participate in any international event such as the Olympics. But despite being isolated, Taiwan has not completely disappeared from the international scene.