Scientific discoveries have shown that the scientists of India, thousands of years before the creation of modern laboratories, had developed many such mathematical systems, from making the finest quality steel, without which reaching the moon or Mars today would not have been possible. However, many experts believe that all the great discoveries of India have not been revealed yet and we do not even know about many discoveries.
Today we are going to tell you about 16 such Indian discoveries, without which the world cannot be imagined today.
1. The invention of zero
No need to write much about zero. This word alone has no value, but if it is preceded by a digit, then its value increases manifold. Mathematics cannot be imagined without this number. Zero was invented by the great mathematician Aryabhata.
2. Decimal System
The gift of decimal system to the world also belongs to India. It was also discovered by Aryabhatta. This is a standard system of representing integer and non-integer numbers. In this system, decimal digits and base of number 10 are used. Under this, each unit is ten times as big as the smaller unit.
3. Numeral Notations
Mathematicians of India discovered different symbols for the numbers from 1 to 9 about 500 years before Christ. Later, it was adopted by the Arab people and named ‘Hind Number’. After this this system was adopted by Western countries and named Arabic numerals. This system reached the western world through Arabic traders.
4. Fibbonacci Numbers
The Fibonacci sequence is a sequence of numbers, where each number is the sum of 2 previous numbers, except for the first two numbers which are 0 and 1. Eg – 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21. This system is commonly denoted as Fn. The system was named by the Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci in the 13th century. But centuries before that this system is mentioned in the ‘Chhandah Sutram’ of Pingal as ‘Matra Meru’. After that the mathematicians Virahanka, Gopal and Hemachandra gave the methods of formation of this sequence.
5. Binary Numbers
Computer programming is written on the basis of this system. Binary consists of two digits – 0 and 1. The combination of both is called bit and byte. The first mention of this system is found in the ‘Chandrashastra’ of the Vedic scholar Pingal.
6. Chakravala method of Algorithms
It is a cyclic algorithm for solving indeterminate quadratic equations. It also solves the Pell Equation. This method was developed by the great 7th century mathematician Brahmagupta, which was further simplified by Jayadeva. Subsequently, Bhaskaracharya included it in his algebra.
7. Ruler Measurements
Linear measurement is used to represent length. Which we can also call distance. The father of this system was the Harappans. In this period houses were made of bricks made in the ratio of 1:2:4. It is also called finger system.
8. Concept of Atom (A Theory of Atom)
Maharishi Kanad had guessed this theory thousands of years before British scientist John Dalton’s atomic theory was given in 1808. He speculated the existence of molecules or small indestructible particles and said that there can be two states of complete rest and motion in the molecule.
He considered the atom to be the last element and said that atoms of the same substance combine in a specific and sequential manner to produce diatomic molecules and triatomic molecules.
9. Heliocentric Theory
Ancient India was centuries ahead in the matter of astronomical science. Aryabhata, the great mathematician and astronomer, told in his book Aryabhattiyam that the earth is round and revolves around the sun while rotating on its axis. He also estimated the solar system, the lunar eclipse, the duration of the day and the distance between the Earth and the Moon.
10. Wootz Steel
It is a steel with special properties. It was developed in India only by 300 BC. It is a crucible steel, which is based on the pattern of a band. In ancient times it was known by the names Ukku, Hindavani and Seric Iron.
This steel was also used to make Damascus swords. During the Chera dynasty Tamilians made the finest steel by hot melting black magnetite in a closed clay pot inside a charcoal furnace.
11. Smelting Zinc
The method of smelting zinc was first discovered in India. For this the distillation process was adopted. This advanced technology was developed on the basis of a long experience of ancient chemistry.
Later, the Parsis tried to break zinc oxide in an open furnace as well, but they could not succeed. The world’s first known zinc smelting site is located at Jawar in the Tiri Valley of Rajasthan. Let us tell you that zinc is used to make iron resistant to corrosion.
12. Seamless Metal Globe
It is one of the most spectacular achievements of metallurgy. The world’s first seamless metal globe was built in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman during the reign of Emperor Akbar. It was obtained in 1980. Before it was found, modern experts believed that it was not possible to make metal goblet without any hindrance.
13. Plastic Surgery
Sushruta, the great surgeon of ancient India, composed the ‘Sushruta Samhita’ in 600 BC. In this, he gave information about the treatment of many diseases through many means and weapons. He is considered the father of surgery. Sushruta Samhita mentions about 125 types of surgical instruments and more than 300 types of surgeries.
14. Cataract Operation
It is said that the first cataract surgery was done by Sushruta in 600 BC. For this he used ‘Jabamukhi Salka’, which was a curved needle. After the operation, he put a blindfold on his eyes, so that it would completely heal. These medical works of Sushruta were later translated into their own language by the Arabs and through them it reached the western countries.
Even before the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, Charaka had laid the foundation of Ayurveda under his ‘Charaka Samhita’. According to Charaka- any diseases are not pre-determined, rather it is influenced by our lifestyle.
He said that it is easy to stay away from diseases with a balanced lifestyle. He introduced the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity in his Samhita. His treatise has 8 parts, in which there are total 120 chapters. The Charaka Samhita was later translated into many foreign languages such as Arabic and Latin.
16. Iron Rocket
Tipu Sultan was the first to outline the use of rockets in wars. He successfully used iron rockets against the East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore War of 1780, which had a range of about 2 km. Because of this, the British had to face a severe defeat in the war.
Original article – Sanchari Pal
Editing – G N Jha
Also read – What is so special in cooler grass, which the Mughals also accepted and countries like Fiji also adopted
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